“In the Researches on the Phenomena of Spiritualism, Mr. Crookes submits to the option of the reader eight theories “to account for the phenomena observed.” These theories runs as follows:
“First Theory – The phenomena are all the result of tricks, clever mechanical arrangements, or legerdemain; the mediums are imposters, and the rest of the company fools.
Second Theory – The persons at a seance are the victims of a sort of mania, or delusion, and imagine phenomena to occur which have no real objective existence.
“Third Theory – The whole is the result of conscious or unconscious cerebral action.
“Fourth Theory – The result of the spirit of the medium, perhaps in association with the spirits of some or all of the people present.
“Fifth Theory – The actions of evil, or devils, personifying whom or what they please, in order to undermine Christianity, and ruin men’s souls. (Theory of our theologians)
“Sixth Theory – The actions of a separate order of beings living on this earth, but invisible and immaterial to us. Able, however, occasionally to manifest their presence, known in almost all countries and ages as demons (not necessarily bad), gnomes, fairies, kobolds, elves, goblins, Puck, etc. (One of the claims of the kabalists.)
“Seventh Theory – The actions of departed human beings. (The spiritual theory par excellence.)
“Eighth Theory – (The psychic force) … an adjunct to the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seven theories.”
The first of these theories having been proved valid only in exceptional, though unfortunately still too frequent cases, must be ruled out as having no material bearing upon the phenomena themselves.
Theories the second and the third are the last crumbing entrenchments of the guerilla of skeptics and materialists, and remain, as lawyers say, “Adhuc sub judice lis est.”
Thus, we can deal in the work but with the four remaining ones, the last, eighth, theory being according to Mr. Crooke’s opinion, but “a necessary adjunct” of the others.”
H. P Blavatsky